C62 Class 4-6-4 'Swallows', JAPAN 1949
the MODELS Baureihe 52 mit Steifrahmentender
and L280mm K5(E) Leopold German Railroad Gun
Go to a page with larger versions of all photos
Baureihe 52 mit Steifrahmentender 1:35 by Trumpeter and the
L280mm K5(E) Leopold German Railroad Gun 1:35 by Trumpeter.
Display Model Kits. Made in China.
Locomotive Model Size: L 886mm. W 87mm. H 134.2mm.
Gun Model Size: L 959mm. W 128mm. H 160
mm.
TOTAL length of combined model: L 1845mm.



the TRAIN Baureihe 52 mit Steifrahmentender

The great need for locomotives in Germany during the second world war explains the explosion in production. First of all construction of classes 44, 50 and 86 was simplified, and orders for other types of locos were cancelled. The best loco of the war was the class BR 50. The construction of the Class BR 52 was not foreseen in any construction program, never mind that of 1939. In 1941 the need for a new simpler type was apparent. These machines became, with an axle load of 15 tonnes and a maximum speed of 80 km/h (44 mph) forwards or backwards, as good as the Class BR 50. Significant quantities of materials and manpower were able to be reduced further reducing their cost. Builder Berliner Maschinenfabrik Year built 1943 Works number 12226 Weight in working order 149,7 tonnes Length over body 22 975 mm (75 feet, 4 inches) Maximum speed 80 km/h (44 mph) Boiler pressure 16 bar (240 psi) Power 1620 CV Grate area 3,9 m2 (41,9 sq.ft.) Driving wheel diameter 1400 mm Fuel capacity Coal - 10 tonnes. Water - 26 m3 (5'715 gallons).

THE GERMAN CLASS "52" LOCOMOTIVE
Intelligence report written in 1943

General

This is a summary of information and conclusions regarding the much publicized German class "52" locomotive recently adopted as standard to replace the class "50" locomotive. The information has been sifted from various German sources, some of which conflict and many of which are of a propaganda nature. Questionable statements have been eliminated as far as possible.

The evidence points to the conclusion that the earlier class "50" locomotive, for which a program of 7,500 locomotives per year was announced by the Germans in March 1942, was a transition model of a class introduced shortly before the war and was only intended as a stop-gap to tide over a critical period. As proof of this, in the accounts of the class "52" locomotive there are several references to a "transition" model, and the photographs which have appeared in the German press are believed to have been of this simplified class "50" locomotive. Furthermore, technical experts severely criticized the older design from available photographs, particularly on the ground that the frame was light and the cylinder saddle weak. The class "52" locomotive is apparently stronger in these respects. In further evidence that the class "50" locomotive, which was light, was constructed as a temporary expedient to provide means for rapidly increasing production, the German press announced that the first of the class "52" locomotives left the factory early in September--although the design and subsequent production of the model class "52" locomotive is estimated to have required 15 months. Evidently considerable progress had already been made on class "52" at the time that the simplified class "50" was temporarily adopted as a standard model.

The Design of the Class "52"

A comparison of photographs of the classes "50" and "52" shows that, contrary to German press accounts, they are lighter models of the class "44," and have the same basic design. In comparison with transition class "50" the new class "52" has a deeper frame, stiffer cylinder saddle, and a welded tender of the modified Vanderbilt, frameless type in place of the riveted type carried on a frame. The bracket for the valve motion has been stiffened by a bridge girder between the bracket and cylinder. A snow plough has been fitted to the locomotive. The smoke deflector plates, the forward steam dome which contained the preheater, the feed pump, and the feed water heater have been eliminated. It is evident that the side and main rods have been redesigned; the brake rigging and similar apparatus are simplified; the locking device on the smoke box has been replaced by a ring of cleats; and the cylinder-exhaust branches are rectangular instead of circular in cross section.

The class "52" locomotive is claimed to be more effectively protected against freezing than the class "50," by thicker lagging, steam jackets around exposed piping, and transfer of exposed parts to a position nearer the boiler. Although it is difficult to verify all these claims from photographs, it appears that the boiler, cylinders, and exhaust branches are well insulated. The photographs do not indicate which pipes were brought nearer the boiler or which pipes have been steam-jacketed. However, contrary to normal practice the air-compressor valve mechanism at the top of the compressor has been covered by a casing and insulated. It has been reported that a closer fit has been made on class "50" locomotive journal-box covers in order to prevent snow from entering, and, no doubt, this has been done on the class "52" locomotive also. The precautions taken against freezing would adapt the locomotive for service on the Eastern Front. Minor differences noted are the mounting of the headlight generator above the firebox instead of on the smoke box; the replacing of two oil lubricators by a single lubricator above the boiler; and the fact that the sand dome, instead of being separate, is inclosed by the rear steam-dome casing.

Utility Value of the Class "52" Locomotive

The conclusion drawn from published data and photographs is that the class "52" locomotive appears to be of sound design throughout, and should have a useful life comparable with prewar engines.

The elimination of the feed water heater at a sacrifice of approximately 7 percent in thermal efficiency will increase fuel costs but reduce maintenance. The elimination of safety couplings and bell, and the use of thin tires, are justifiable in wartime, and there will be no difficulty in changing these parts at a later date. There is no evidence that the class "52" ;ocomotive has been designed for a short working life. The retention of extension piston rods to reduce cylinder wear on class "52" is direct evidence to the contrary.

From the viewpoint of normal continental practice the class "52" is a light model of moderate power, suitable for operating branch lines and local services, but not suitable for heavy, main-line post-war traffic in the Reich.

From German accounts, the construction of the class "42" is to be initiated in 1944 for heavy service. This class has never previously been built in quantity but it is thought to be comparable in performance to the class "44." It is thought probable that if the class "42" is built, the class "52" locomotives will also be continued in construction.


the GUN Leopold
Although from the mid-19th century people started considering imparting mobility to large caliber artillery pieces by placing them on special railway mountings, it was WWI that gave the impetus to making the railway gun an important part of many European armories. The advantages of railway guns were to quickly concentrated and dispersed as necessary, and by rapid changes of position they could deliver long range harassing fire and remain undetected. By 1918 the railway gun was in use by nearly all the major combatants and among them Germany was the major country with this powerful armament. But after 1918 the Treaty commissions scrapped all the German railway artillery. After the NSDAP came to power in 1933 the German military began a major rearmament program and on the list of weapons needed were modern railway guns. Before 1933 a great deal of theoretical work had been carried out on future railway guns but it was not until 1934 that the first practical work began on two new designs. In time these were to emerge as the K5 (E) and K12 (E). The Leopold had an unconfirmed range of 11 miles and fired a pre-engraved projectile weighing approximately 550 pounds. It is fired from a turntable affording a 360degree traverse. The gun has a 70-foot 8-inch barrel held in a sleeve-type cradle. The barrel recoil mechanism, fitted between two arms projecting downward from the cradle, consists of two hydro pneumatic cylinders and a single hydraulic buffer cylinder. A central jack helps support the tremendous weight of the gun and carriage, which amounts to around 230 tons and also serves as a central pivot for the turntable. The German Leopold Gun was the largest weapon, which lobbed shells at American troops at "Anzio Beach". The Leopold supported by 24 railcar wheels, was mounted on railroad tracks, which led in and out of mountain tunnels. When not firing, the gun was rolled back into the tunnels out of the sight of Allied reconnaissance. Although both guns had been extensively damaged, Allied forces were able to salvage the Leopold and after reconstruction of the railway, moved the gun to Naples for shipment to the United States. "Anzio Annie" as the gun was known to the Allied troops at Anzio, is the only German railroad gun known to have survived World War II. The Leopold is currently on display at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Aberdeen, Maryland.

The earliest railway artillery of record was employed in the Confederate Army in 1862. Experiments went on during the next 50 years, but there was little development till 1914. During World War I the Germans developed and employed a most unexpected long-range gun, the famous "Big Bertha".

The railway gun was a long-range gun with limited mobility which is generally carried on railways ramified over fortresses or special army bases. This railway gun had a larger caliber, a longer barrel, a heavier weight and an exceptionally longer range than field guns and mobile artilleries. It was concealed in secret camouflaged entrenchments or tunnels and carried to the firing place as the occasion demanded. Firing from a great distance could take the enemy by surprise.

Despite numerous reconnaissance flight by the French during the shelling of Paris in 1918, the 21cm "Big Bertha" firing at a range of 76 miles (some 120 km) was never discovered. Even after the war, the mystery that surrounded this long-range railway gun would not fade.

German adopted the method of setting a gun carriage on a firm frame attaching both a front and rear bogie truck for the long-range railway gun developed after World War I. As the load for one axle is limited, a number of axles can bear a far heavier gun, Therefore, the K5 railway gun had 12 axles : 6 axles to both the front and rear truck (load for an axle ; 18 tons). An ammunition wagon, covered car for personnel, covered car for equipment, etc. were usually attached to the two bogie trucks and a locomotive was attached to one side end. There were two firing types of railway gun : one firing in a stopping condition on the rails, and the other firing after stable operation with setting the frame on the turntable platform that was founded in a definite place.

The 21cm Bertha used in World War I was an epochal long-range gun of the latter type with a barrel of 36m on length and the longest range in the world (120 km). in 1935, the Germans began to re-arm and started on the design of a new type of railway gun with more mobility, making effective use of their experience with the "Big Bertha". the main railway guns among the new types were the 24cm Theodor Bruno K (range : 20 km), the 28cm K5 E, the 38cm Siegfried K (55.7 km), and the 80cm Dora (47 km). It was the 28cm caliber class that brought power into full play among them, and especially the 28cm K5 became famous as the main force railway gun. In case where it was used as a fort gun that fires on enemy fleets off the coast, what is known as coastal artillery, it was stationed on railways laid in a gallery along the quay. This way, they could avoid bombing by enemy planes and effectively watch over the movements of hostile crafts.

The project for the 28cm K5 was commenced secretly in 1934 and eight trail equipments were successfully used by the end of February 1940. By the end of the war, about 25 equipments had been built. As the tractor a diesel locomotive of 40 tons weight was used. The amount of shells loaded on the train was generally 113 in number, but considerable time was necessary for charging and adjusting after firing. Operation of the gun was entirely electro-motive and during transportation the barrel was always in a horizontal condition.

Specifications :
Caliber ................................................. 28.3 cm
Overall Length of Barrel ....................21.539 m
Overall Length including
projecting rear Bogie ........................31.100 m
Maximum Elevation .................................50 degree
Weight in Action ..............................218,000 kg
Weight of Carriage and Piece .........209,550 kg
Muzzle Velocity 1,120 m/s
Range ................................................59 - 62 km
Firing Interval ................................... 8 shells/h
(7 minutes and 30 seconds /shell).


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C62 Class 4-6-4 Japan National Railways 1949
Tractive effort 30,690 lb (13,925kg)
Axle load 36,500 lb (I6.5t)
Cylinders (2) 20 1/2 x 26in (521 x 660mm)
Driving wheels 69in (1,750mm)
Heating surface* 2,640sq ft (245m2)
Superheater included above
Steam pressure 228psi (16kg/cm2)
Grate area 41.5sq ft (3.85m2)
Fuel 22,000 lb (10t)
Water 4,850gall (5,820 US) (22m3)
Adhesive weight 142,500 lb (64.5t)
Total weight 356,000 lb (101.5t)
Length overall 70ft 5 1/2in (21,475mm). (*including superheater)

MODELING COMMENTS
Steam Locomotive C62 1:50 by Arii.

This very rare kit makes a beautiful model. Model size - Length 429mm Width 56mm Height 80mm.
Kit description: ARII Steam Locomotive C62 Type. Scale 1:50 Display Model. Kit number A553-6000

I purchased this kit in 2003 for just under $100 euro from Japan Model Railways in Germany.
Their internet and mail service was Five Star. Contact details at the bottom of the page.

At right is a detail of the fire box panel.


Japan Model Railways
Japan Toy Service
Westenmauer 39
D-59174 Kamen
Germany

Tel +49 / 2307 / 240938
eMail info@japanmodelrailways.com
Web www.japanmodelrailways.com

Any comments, please contact me at jcrooke@hyperstimulator.com

Every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright and we apologise to any we have been unable to contact

Cheers
Jon Crooke

1 May 2006